Rudbekia (Rudbeckia)kategoria: byliny. It is always very easy, but expensive to just run down to your local garden center or big-box store and pick up a few plants. The "true" black-eyed Susan is the closely related Rudbeckia hirta, which is also sometimes called the ox-eye daisy; though it is not, of course, a daisy. Pink rudbeckia flowers are common. The perennial black-eyed Susan, Rudbeckia Fulgida is widely available for purchase in garden centers across the United States, and is the most common variety seen in residential/commercial gardens. University of Florida IFAS Extension: Rudbeckia, University of Florida IFAS Extension: Echinacea. This variety of Rudbeckia will get up to 3′ in good conditions with full sun. Be sure to read these 1st!! Common names for echinacea include “purple coneflower,” “hedge coneflower” or “purple Echinacea.” The word "echinacea" comes from “echinos,” the Greek word for hedgehog. Blooming from June-Sep depending on the variety, these, Since these plants are native to a large portion of, This plant attracts a variety of pollinators, namely bees and butterflies. Sun Ka Ching. This makes the plant interesting to watch even into the fall, as you may notice a stem suddenly begin swaying on a calm day, only to discover a small wren or other bird sitting on the seed head having a snack! Both echinacea and rudbeckia are easily adaptable to a variety of growing conditions, in addition to being low maintenance and free from most pests and diseases, although slugs and snails are often an issue. deamii. It is a short-lived herbaceous perennial found in the Central and Eastern United States. It is possible to grow in partial shade, but the plants will not get as large, nor produce as many blooms. Road salt tolerant.An All America Selections Award Winner 2002. Some Wisconsin “purists” question whether it is “native” to our region, since it can often be found in disturbed habitats. The brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba) is a short-lived perennial or biennial plant that thrives in USDA plant hardiness zones 4 through 7. Of course, you could collect your own seed from plants you see growing in the wild. It is a pretty smart thing to do actually. If the plant is grown in fertile soil, fertilized, and tended to then you might have your plant exceed the height and spacing. In my experience it also blooms for the longest duration, starting in late June and lasting through August into September. Native Sunflowers 101 - What, Why, and How To GROW! Remember, this is a prairie plant! })(); Rudbeckia maxima. zones 2 through 11) are two genera of herbaceous flowers also known as coneflowers. Even if it can survive, it probably won’t be attractive to you or the wildlife that would normally visit it. The differences between echinacea and rudbeckia are slight. Echinacea purpurea, along with echinacea pallida and echinacea augustifolia, is used in herbal medicine. I hope to give you some tips and useful information! The Rudbeckia plant genus consists of hardy perennials that range from 30 cm to 1.8 m in height. That was when I learned that Rudbeckia generally doesn’t need fertilizer….. Is Rudbeckia Maxima Similar to the Black-Eyed Susan? Testing Soil Texture by Hand - The Soil Ribbon Test. If your flower beds typically have plants spaced out, with mulch in-between each plant than this is your best choice that will suit your needs. Małe kwiatostany składają się z ciemnobrązowych i żółtych ligulate kwiatów. However, as far as most perennial flowers go, this is one of the lowest maintenance plants you could have in your garden. Caterpillars of Silvery Checkerspot Butterflies forage on the foliage and seeds are consumed by goldfinches. How to Prune Rudbeckias. Rudbeckia triloba Brown-eyed Susan ... Rudbeckia fulgida var. Once planted in a prairie it should continue as a colorful species for many years, even though it may move around. Also known as brown or black-eyed Susans, rudbeckias (Rudbeckia spp.) Strona korzysta z plików cookie. You can expect germination in a roughly 2-4 weeks once the temperatures warm up. Then rebury the sections, and it should grow as normal. Blooming from June-Sep depending on the variety, these native perennials are an excellent choice for any garden. I just transplant to other areas to fill in gaps, or give you neighbors/friends. In dry sites, Rudbeckia triloba would offer similar appearance and provide the same quick effect. Although it prefers medium-moisture soil, it is drought tolerant. Little Goldstar. The black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) has a rich history as a native wildflower, popular first as a medicinal herb used by pre-colonial Native Americans and then finding its way into 19th century cultivated flowerbeds.. Dowiedz się więcej. You really should check out our guide on saving Black Eyed Susan Seeds. As with most flowers, if you clip off flower heads after they have bloomed, it generally will encourage the plant to form more blooms. Rudbekia (Rudbeckia L.) – rodzaj roślin z rodziny astrowatych, obejmujący ok. 15 gatunków pochodzących z Ameryki Północnej.W Polsce w środowisku naturalnym występują tylko dwa gatunki: rudbekia naga i rudbekia owłosiona (obydwa to kenofity i agriofity – uciekinierzy z upraw). We hope to provide you with handy how-tos to start or enhance your own home gardens, as well as provide you with plans on how to make some popular home decor projects, both easily & inexpensively. i Rudbeckia serotina Nutt.) Both flowers grow on long green stems with alternate leaves and a thick root system. Rudbeckia may be annuals, biennials or perennials, all of which are native to the meadowlands and woodlands of North America. The main varieties of Rudbeckia / Black-eyed Susan all bloom for long periods of time for a perennial. I recommend using Liquid Fence Concentrate to keep rabbits & deer away. Have you ever wondered what kind of soil you really have? Second, some of the plants were getting full sun, but not 12 hour sun. Rudbeckia - Rudbekia Inne. Rudbeckia Cherokee Sunset - Common name:Gloriosa Daisy - Double and semi-double 3-4" flowers in shades of yellow, orange, red, bronze and mahogany; some bicolor. } Their bright yellow flowers add a great accent to any garden as a background flower or a center display. I’ve grown several that were more than 6’ (2m). rupestris browneyed Susan Rudbeckia triloba var. It is a step by step process that shows you how to save large quantities of seed without any chaff! I’m currently growing one brown-eyed susan in an isolated location surrounded by lawn and small evergreen shrubs. All Rudbeckia prefer full sun, so keep that in consideration. Rudbeckia Fulgida is often available in garden centers across the country. I recommend growing this plant from seed, as it is the most economical way to obtain a large number of healthy plants, and be sure of exactly what species they are. } Although this variety is normally not available in garden centers, or seed racks in the store, I’ve found them on Amazon at the link below. TRIVIA: Rudbeckia hirta is Maryland’s State Flower. I’ve grown these several times, and was always impressed with how full they got, and how prominent the blooms were rising above my other Rudbeckia. Rudbeckia bloom in the summertime when they carry white or yellow daisy like flowers that have brown centers. Rudbeckia prefer evenly moist, well-drained soils, but they are drought and heat tolerant once established. So, you know you would be getting a hardy plant. This species of black-eyed susan can be the ‘biggest kid on the block’ when it comes to Rudbeckia. } A hallmark of prairies and meadows, Black Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) is a biennial that blooms and completes its life cycle in its second year with an extravagant floral display. It is the larval host to two different species of butterfly, the, In general, the easiest way to plant this seed is to plant them in starter pots during the winter, and set them outside for. The annual rudbeckia species amplexicaulis, also called the clasping coneflower, grows naturally as a self-seeding wildflower throughout the Southeastern U.S. Rudbeckia triloba. If you liked this article, check out our other Native Plant Guides. Black-Eyed Susans will need full sun in order to reach its full height potential. Welcome to Growit Buildit! This has the smallest bloom size, but it compensates for this by making the most blooms, by far. If the plant is truly a local eco-type, then you know that it is perfectly adapted to survive in your local area. are easy-care plants that grow from 8 inches to 10 feet tall, depending on the species and cultivar. No problem growing in clay soil as long as it drains well. No need for fancy tools or big budgets! I've been growing plants from seed and designing native plant gardens for over six years. The petals of the rudbeckia flower also grow outward, while the petals of echinacea tend to curve down and outward from the center of the flower. The problem comes when a gardener sees a planting of Rudbeckia 'Goldsturm' and wants that plant, but asks for "black-eyed Susan" and is given a R. hirta variety, or vice versa. The plants I observed definitely didn’t appear to be reaching their full potential. Środek kwiatostanu jeżówki przypomina to zwierzątko. Rudbeckia triloba var. I enjoy designing/building projects (with hand tools when I can!). It features masses of 1-2” wide, daisy-like, golden-yellow flowers with flat, purplish-brown centers on hairy stems from late summer to early fall. wysokość: 0,8-2 m. mrozoodporność: do -20°C. With so many different varieties available, we will focus in on some of the more common varieties you’ve probably seen in flower beds or in the wild. Pozostając na tej stronie, wyrażasz zgodę na korzystanie z plików cookie. I’m thinking this is do to two reasons. In this way, seeds shouldn’t germinate in the evergreen shrub (no sunlight), and any seedlings within my lawn can be handled by a lawnmower. Rudbeckia triloba. The most common among gardeners is echinacea purpurea, due to the large purple flowers it produces. Rudbeckia triloba (browneyed susan, brown-eyed susan, thin-leaved coneflower, three-leaved coneflower) is a species of flowering plant in the sunflower family native to the United States. It can make a great accent or background within a larger garden. Then click below to check out our detailed guide on germinating Black-Eyed Susans! So, in this article I will cover how to grow Black Eyed Susans as well as some of the key differences between the species. They need to be kept moist, not wet. { Rudbeckia hirta var. If you purchase a cultivar, then you can use the seeds to grow more of the same plant. A wonderfully cheerful native wildflower, Rudbeckia triloba lights up the summer garden with a profusion of tidy, golden-yellow daisies held in a tight bouquet over the foliage. As this plant has all of the rugged, tough characteristics that all Rudbeckia’s have, but this is probably the most showy. Black Eyed Susan is a common name for many different flowers. Rudbeckia hirta, commonly known as Coneflower or Black-eyed Susan, are a tough and sturdy perennial that blooms for long periods. This Coneflower is native all over Eastern North America. Many-flowered Coneflower: USDA Zone: 4-9: Plant number: 1.455.700. £6.70. I’ve done this many times. Variations of Black-Eyed Susan / Rudbeckia abound in gardens and meadows across the United States. W uprawie jako rośliny ozdobne występuje jeszcze kilka innych gatunków. This is known as ‘dead-heading’ your plant. So it is well behaved, decent sized, but yet it still keeps to itself as it will not get very ‘leggy’. This distinction is important if you wish to propagate this plant further from seed. stanowisko: słońce. There are roughly 25 different species of rudbeckia, some of which are perennials, while others are annuals or biennials. It is often seen in old fields or along roadsides. Blossoms attract native bees, pollinating flies, beneficial wasps and butterflies. Typically a month or more. However, most of these will be specific hybrids or cultivars. Becoming a contributing member of Gardenia is easy and can be done in just a few minutes. In a nutshell, all varieties of Black-Eyed Susan/Rudbeckia need the following to grow and thrive; Although known by many different names depending on what region you are in, Black-Eyed Susan is generally a ‘catch-all’ term to describe the many different species and varieties of Rudbeckia. But, in general all varieties of Black-Eyed Susan are quite versatile. Rudbeckia triloba (Rudbeckia triloba) Na wysokości krzew osiąga 1-1,4 m, jego kwitnienie jest krótkie, ale bardzo obfite. More like 8 hours, so the reduced sunlight helped keep their size down (I think). So, in this article I will cover how to grow Black Eyed Susans as well as some of the key differences between the species. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location. In Stock. Additionally I am a wood worker / DIY enthusiast. The seeds from hybrids will not produce plants that are like the original hybrid (plant you got the seeds from). It is not harmful to the animals, but gives them a smell & taste deterrent to keep them away from your plants. That doesn’t just mean the climate – it means resistance to disease and pests/insects. link to Native Sunflowers 101 - What, Why, and How To GROW! How to … This is the species that you commonly see growing along roadsides or in pastures as you drive through the countryside. Echinacea and rudbeckia also have different ranges of climate zones. Rudbeckia triloba is a short-lived perennial which establishes well and readily self-seeds. Then make sure you protect them from rabbits/deer, as they often will eat young plants. Rudbeckia species have an average growth rate and prefer full sun (greater than 6 hours of direct sunlight) but will tolerate partial shade. In Stock This is because by definition, a hybrid is when two different plants are pollinated to produce a new species, offspring. Native Plants – Why and How They Help the Environment. Echinacea thrives in USDA plant hardiness zones 4 through 10. In fact, I’ve only grown them in clay, since every home I’ve lived in has been blessed with clay soil……blessed. Black-eyed Susans will average 2–3 feet in height and about 1–2 feet in clump … Leave this field empty if you're human: LOOKING TO PUT IN A NEW GARDEN BED? Click here for additional SEED STARTER TRAYS. (jej synonimy to Rudbeckia bicolor Nutt. I’ve seen this in the wild several times, and it has never been nearly as large as when I grew it in a more well-tended, mulched garden. Want to to learn how to germinate all types of Rudbeckia / Black-Eyed Susan seeds? Black-eyed Susan, Deam's coneflower. Her with a love of HOME DECOR DIY. If you start your seeds early enough, you should be able to get blooms the first year. ma liście odziomkowe węższe (1-2.5(5)cm) i bardziej wydłużone (2-5× dłuższe niż szersze), lancetowate do odwrotnielancetowatych, całobrzegie lub piłkowane. Great coneflower. With hundreds of special variations to choose from. Liście łodygowe są łopatkowate, odwrotnielancetowate, lub podługowate. Everwilde seed comes in nice resealable packets, and have good germination rates. I’m a big fan of the following companies, and have used their seed for years. It is common practice for many gardeners looking to prolong the bloom period of their perennials. And, follow us on Pinterest & Instagram. Well, not really. I hope to share some of my knowledge with you! Perhaps the most marked difference between the two plants is in the color and appearance of the flower. Both flowers bloom during the summer through the fall and require similar growing conditions, including full sun and well-draining soil. They typically run from $5-$12 dollars depending on the size or variety. Yes. This plant attracts a variety of pollinators, namely bees and butterflies. Common names are from state and federal lists. The echinacea flower is also slightly larger, sometimes requiring support if the flower heads become too heavy. Echinacea is a perennial flower of nine species, some planted for aesthetic value while others have practical applications. Email address: It will bloom for a long time, and should be given a prominent place in any garden. I’m doing this to make ‘offspring’ control easier. But, I’ve never had them live very long, so the excess number of blooms makes sense. First, the species in the wild had lots of competition, as it was in a meadow/prairie. Echinacea is typically pink and black or purple and black in color, while rudbeckia is a vibrant yellow or orange with a yellow or black center. It is the larval host to two different species of butterfly, the Bordered Patch and the Gorgone Checkerspot. There are very few differences between these easy-to-grow wildflowers. Once that happens, you get treated to seeing songbirds landing on the seed-heads to pick out seed. Since Sweet Black-Eyed Susan is so tall, you really get to see it sway more when a bird lands on it. ); Both of these plants come from the aster plant family and produce long-stemmed flowers with daisy-like petals that surround a center shaped like a cone. Yeah – that’s the ticket. on: function(evt, cb) { Rudbeckia gloriosa ‘Goldquelle’ Goldquelle is a popular variety because of its unusual, very showy, double yellow flowers that will add cheer to any herbaceous border. Echinacea and rudbeckia are both hardy flowers, tolerating drought and soils of poor fertility. As far as tall plants go, it is a very hardy plant, good for the ‘back’ of the garden. How to grow Black-Eyed Susans (Rudbeckia) from seed, True Natives will be tough, drought resistant, pest and disease resistant, Rabbits do enjoy nibbling on young plants / early Spring growth. event : evt, Although the most economical way to enjoy this plant is to either purchase seeds at any store that sells gardening supplies, or collect them from the wild after the blooms have dried, but before the birds have eaten them……. The EASIEST way to Save Black Eyed Susan Seeds! I would recommend to let them grow in larger pots, 4” (10cm) deep/wide or more, until they reach a large size before transplanting into the ground. The brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba) is a short-lived perennial or biennial plant that thrives in USDA plant hardiness zones 4 through 7. Threatened and Endangered Information: This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. In general, the easiest way to plant this seed is to plant them in starter pots during the winter, and set them outside for winter sowing. Two plants that will perform very differently but may be called by the same common name! If you have seen Black-eyed Susans around your neighborhood, it is likely this one – most likely the Goldstrum type. 24-36" tall x 15-18" wide. Just dig it up, and use a shovel to separate the plant. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Many rudbeckia species are found growing naturally throughout the United States, Mexico and Canada. This Coneflower is native all over Eastern North America. £6.70. I always say that you should think 3 years into the future when designing your garden. It depends on your situation, and what you think you want, or will want in the future. It features masses of 1-2” wide, daisy-like, golden-yellow flowers with flat, purplish-brown centers on hairy stems from late summer to early fall. I’ve seen them growing in partial shade, but these weren’t large attractive plants. Noun 1. Both flowers come from the same plant family and are very closely related. Don’t forget to sign up for the email newsletter! Join We love all sunflowers here but the original Native species is by far our favorite. Jeżówka (Echinacea) Nazwa jeżówka – Echinacea pochodzi od greckiego słowa echinos co oznacza – jeż. In high school I got my first job at a garden center where I learned to garden and landscape. Dolne blaszki liściowe są trójpłatkowe, a liście łodyg są owalne i ciemnozielone. It is a best seller for a reason. But, you can plant them in early spring. I’ve successfully grown them multiple times over the years in heavy clay. Ever wondered where it really fell on the NRCS soil pyramid? Forever Gold. which can be grown in USDA hardiness zones 3 - 9) and rudbeckia (Rudbeckia spp. Native to the United States, echinacea (Echinacea spp. This variety can do great in a common mulched flower bed, as it won’t self-seed that much. Hi - I grew up outdoors in nature - hiking, fishing, hunting. Rudbeckia triloba. These seeds germinate best when just pressed into the soil, not covered up. Rudbeckia triloba is a bushy, free-flowering, 2-3' (to 5') tall biennial or short-lived perennial that readily self sows and is very effective for naturalizing. He with a love & extensive self-taught knowledge of NATIVE PLANTS, GARDENING, and woodworking. I’ve purchased many seeds from Everwilde in the past and have had good luck with them. The rudbeckias and echinaceas are both perennial members of the aster family, which also includes chrysanthemums, daisies, sunflowers, and of course true asters. This variety can get very tall. It is a rugged plant, somewhat weedy, that tolerates heat, drought, deer predation, and a wide range of soils. Some of the common names for Rudbeckia include … Many-flowered Coneflower: USDA Zone: 4-9: Plant number: 1.455.700. This plant can be aggressive, and will self seed profusely. Goldsturm. I have several of these dispersed throughout my ‘meadow’ garden, as they provide nice color and fullness to the overall meadow. Black-eyed Susans are very rugged/tough, and can tolerate almost any soil, be it clay/sand/loam. So, which varieties will you choose? It can be divided in Spring or Fall, before top growth really begins. Rudbeckia tends to tolerate cooler climates than echinacea. These plants bloom for such a long time that you really should have at least a few in your flower beds or yard. window.mc4wp.listeners.push( Since these plants are native to a large portion of North America (Midwest, Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, New England – basically everywhere but the desert), they are resistant to many diseases and damaging insects. If the plant has evolved to grow best in full sun, then you should grow it in full sun. Both plants are also referred to by their genus names. Rudbeckia Cherokee Sunset provides a pleasing blend of autumn colors and late season flowering. Rudbekia (Rudbeckia) Nazwę "rudbekia", nadał roślinie Karol Linneusz, który chciał w ten sposób uhonorować jednego ze swoich najzdolniejszych uczniów – Olafa Rudbeck'a. To do this, you just need to purchase from seed from a trusted source. Common names for rudbeckia include “gloriosa daisy”, “conedisk” and “black-eyed Susan.” There are roughly 25 different species of Rudbeckia, some of which are perennials, while others are annuals or biennials. Rudbeckia is a genus made up of 23 species, commonly known as Black-eyed Susans, Brown-eyed Susans or Gloriosa Daisy (annual or bienniel). You have found our illustrated guide on growing and caring for Native Sunflowers! Plant rudbeckia during the months of April and May in USDA zone 9. They all look similar, but Rudbeckia Hirta, Rudbeckia Fulgida, Rudbeckia Triloba, are all quite different! Rudbeckia triloba Rudbeckia hirta ‘Toto Lemon’ Rudbeckia hirta Rustic Colors Rudbeckia fulgida ‘Goldsturm’ All 32 results here: Alphabetical list of all 4,000+ perennials here: Rudbeckia triloba. Create a membership account to save your garden designs and to view them on any device. triloba browneyed Susan Legal Status. So, if you are considering purchasing some Rudbeckia, or growing some from seed, please use the reference table below. Echinacea was nicknamed after this animal due to its spikey, hair-like foliage at the base of the plant. Black Eyed Susan is a common name for many different flowers. This can make a great border to a wooded area, that will self-seed and replant itself every year. I’ve personally grown a specimen that was over 8’ tall (2.5m). I recommend this species in a more isolated location, or among other thick/tough plants. Alternatively, if you notice your Rudbeckia is ‘dead’ or not growing in the center, then the following Spring it should be divided. In Stock. The price was $2.50 before shipping, but this might change so check the price at the link below; Everwilde Farms – 2000 Sweet Black-Eyed Susan Native Wildflower Seeds – Gold Vault Jumbo Seed Packet. It is a year-round plant in USDA zones 7 through 10. Rudbeckia triloba . This variety is really fun to let the flower heads stay on, long after the bloom so that seed develops. Conversely, if the conditions aren’t perfect for the plant, then the plant might only grow on the low end of the size/spacing ranges listed. Wersja mobilna strony | Both Echinacea and rudbeckia use the common name “coneflower” interchangeably. Rudbeckia hirta 'Autumn Colors' (Black-Eyed Susan) Highly floriferous, Rudbeckia hirta 'Autumn Colors' is a compact, biennial or short-lived perennial, usually grown as an annual, boasting large, golden flowers flushed with red, rust and bronze, up to 5 in. forms: { This species is often known as ‘brown-eyed Susan’, as its small flowers have reflexed yellow petals and … window.mc4wp = window.mc4wp || { They can also adapt well to average soils.Rudbeckia have a clumping, but upright habit, and coarse texture. As with the other Rudbeckias, birds will visit these seed-heads for months to come. Rudbeckia laciniata 'Goldquelle' Cut-leaved coneflower. This aesthetically pleasing wildflower has a deep black center that turns to brown during the growing season. We are a husband and wife duo. Leaving the blooms to form seeds will allow the plant to self-seed, as well as attract birds who enjoy the seeds. It readily grows in the wild, and competes well with other plants. This plant is what I like to call a clay-buster plant. It is very short lived, but will self seed. callback: cb You can divide Rudbeckia every several years. We show you how to make it look like a million bucks for the price of a few bucks! But this plant is hardy, and this specific species, or the popular ‘Goldstrum’ variety is what you picture when you think of this plant. This variety might self seed somewhat, so come spring you may have some volunteers! } But, don’t forget to use your own common sense – if during the peak heat of summer there is no rain for a week, and the leaves are starting to get crisp on the edge, then the plant needs water. Fighting with mother-nature normally doesn’t pay off well. The sizes and spacing listed are reference for typical growing conditions (full sun/med water). Rudbeckia triloba : Za tę wiadomość podziękował(a): Amlos , piku , andowan , annawu , ewakatarzyna Rudbekia (Rudbeckia) 12 Paź 2013 06:32 #197904 Otherwise you will likely need to wait until the second year. It is also cultivated as an ornamental. So I wouldn’t suggest that you try anything but full sun. listeners: [], Rudbeckia triloba is a bushy, free-flowering, 2-3' (to 5') tall biennial or short-lived perennial that readily self sows and is very effective for naturalizing. Hello! Here is the seed starter trays I recommend: LARGE SEED STARTER TRAYS . Rudbeckia triloba, or Brown-Eyed Susan, is a herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial that grows easily in average, moist, well-drained soils. Transplants will bloom the year they are planted, and will easily self-sow onto open soil, creating a … Many-flowered Coneflower: USDA Zone: 4-9: Plant number: 1.455.700. Each variety I have described in this article has it’s own special uses. (function() { In fact, these two genera are so similar that botanists occasionally use their names interchangeably, referring to species of echinacea as rudbeckia and vice versa. across (12 cm) - one of the largest blooms among Rudbeckia. pulcharrima Farw. Rudbeckia hirta synonyms, Rudbeckia hirta pronunciation, Rudbeckia hirta translation, English dictionary definition of Rudbeckia hirta. This version shouldn’t become invasive in a well managed garden. So, that means you can enjoy varieties of black-eyed susans together to create a stunning yellow display that is long lasting. Prairie Moon Nursery have great seeds, and a ton of excellent instruction for stratification. In zones 10 and 11, it can be planted as early as March, and again in the fall, during the months of October and November. They all look similar, but Rudbeckia Hirta, Rudbeckia Fulgida, Rudbeckia Triloba, are all quite different! link to Testing Soil Texture by Hand - The Soil Ribbon Test.
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