However, the spring, summer and fall flowering make up for it. This sun-loving shrub bears clusters of tubular flowers in Central and South Florida. It likes high humidity and a moist, friable, well-drained soil that is high in organics. Simple, opposite decussate, oblong, stipulate with interpetiolar stipules and unicostate reticulate venation. Selvaraj R, 1987. Fort de France, Trinité, Lamentin, Marin, Darién, Coqué, Colón, Canal Area, Bocas del Toro, Mangareva (Gambier) Island, Hiva Oa Island, Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island, Moorea Island, Tahiti Island, Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll, Mili (Mile) Atoll, Aur Atoll, Arno Atoll, Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25])), Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Deliberate sales. In Thailand, the roots or flowers are used as anti-inflammatory and antidiarrhoeal drugs, as astringents, tranquilizers and appetite stimulants. I would also like to add that ... of 'ButterflyIndia' (facebook) group helped me identify the egg of the same butterfly in the related photograph. Ixora flammea Salisb. It has become one of the most popular flowering shrubs in South Florida gardens and landscapes. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Further, mango trees are also host of this butterfly. ex Miq. The old South Florida favorite ixora (Ixora spp.) Family Rubiaceae, Subclass Asteridae. This tight, compact shrub is much branched and tolerates hard pruning, making it ideal for formal hedges (Floridata, 2017). Seeds germinate between 32 and 70 days following sowing (Francis, 2004). Stem . by De Padua LS, Bunyapraphatsara N, Lemmens RHMJ]. In Ecuador, it is cultivated in coastal areas at elevations from 0 to 500 m (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017). The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. Cultivation: Hybrid relatively slower-growing than other types of Ixora. Leaves (9-)12-25 x (3.5)5-9(-12) cm, glabrous. Origin: Mutation discovered among cultivated plants of Ixora coccinea, cv., CABI, 2020. American Journal of Botany, 95(11), 1375-1394. doi: 10.3732/ajb.0800114. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern. Ixora dixiana Gentil. The genus name is thought to be derived from the Sanskrit "Iswari", the name of the Hindu goddess Parvati, to whom the flowers are offered in Indian temples; the specific epithet coccinea is Latin for scarlet or bright red, in reference to the flower colour (Quattrocchi, 2012). Though native to the tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world, its centre of diversity is in Tropical Asia., USDA-ARS, 2017. In general I. coccinea is found in cultivated land, plains, scrubland, woodland and gardens (Encyclopedia of Life, 2017). One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Ixora coccinea red inflorescence. Androecium made up of 4 stamens, polyandrous, epipetalous and alternipetalous, anthers sagitate, dithecous, dorsifixed, introrse. Although light frosts may kill the plant above ground, new growth will occur in spring (Floridata, 2017). © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Geographical Distributions. Cytologia, 52, 343-356. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation. I. coccinea is widely cultivated as an ornamental (New York Botanical Garden, 2017), used in hedges and valued for its floral display (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017). > > … Reynolds and Forster (Austrobaileya 7(2): 253-278. Ysrael, MC, Van Valkenburg, JLCH, 1999., Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2017. da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro: Ixoroideae, Gardenieae). In: Flora of Mozambique. The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. Annals of Missouri Botanic Garden, 96, 146-160. In: Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Root . Delray Beach, Florida, USA: The Institute for Regional Conservation., Gilman EF, 1999. When cut or burned I. coccinea coppices and prostate plants produce vertical shoots. In India the roots are reported to possess sedative properties and are used against hiccups, fever, gonorrhoea, loss of appetite, diarrhoea and dysentery. Apparently I. coccinea does not reproduce naturally outside its native range. Widely cultivated in New World tropical countries and lower 48 United States, Highly adaptable to different environments, Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally. It is a common flowering shrub native to Southern India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. The wide range of varieties available for both species makes it difficult to distinguish between them on the basis of petal shape or floral colour. Frankie Hipp. A decoction of the flowers or the bark is employed as a lotion against eye troubles, sores and ulcers while the leaves are used to treat diarrhoea (Ysrael and Van Valkenburg, 1999). Ash content, crude fat and crude fibre of Ixora coccinea were higher than Sida acuta and that of the leaf and inflorescence samples in this present study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 153(3), 900-907. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.03.064. Gann GD, Trejo-Torres JC, Stocking CG, 2019. The African species of Ixora (Rubiaceae–Pavetteae), Opera Botanica Belgica 9. It shows moderate tolerance to drought (Gilman, 1999) and tolerates mild salt spray (Watkins and Sheeham, 1975). Bull. The chromosome number reported for I. coccinea is 2n = 22 (Selvaraj, 1987). Str. 382 pp. Ixora coccinea is used in warm climates for hedges and screens, foundation plantings, landscaping or grown as a specimen shrub or small tree. Inhibition of phagocytic and intracellular killing activity of human neutrophils by aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Ixora coccinea. Aerial, erect, branched, cylindrical and woody. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. The crimson coloured chickpea-sized fruits of I. coccinea are used as food especially by children in the villages and tribal areas in India (Nazarudeen, 2010). I. coccinea is a perennial species (Encyclopedia of Life, 2017). Synonym: Ixora incarnata. India Biodiversity Portal, 2017. Flowers sessile, bright scarlet hypanthium 1-1.5 mm long, glabrescent, teeth, c. 0.5 mm long, corolla-tube, 2.5-4.0 cm long, 1.5 mm wide, glabrous, lobes 8-10 x 4-5 mm, twisted in bud, throat glabrous. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico Press.436 pp. decolorans Corner, Gard. Ixorea coccinea. Ovary 0.1-0.2 cm across; style 3-3.5 cm, exserted. Effectiveness and importance of butterflies as pollinators to the flowers of Ixora coccinea. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, (Edn 2 (revised)) . Online Portal of India Biodiversity. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Ixora: a review. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences , 2, 71-74. Ixora coccinea and I. chinensis are often confused even by those in the nursery trade; both have red to yellow flowers, with tubes never longer than 5 cm with very small sepals. Ixora incarnata Roxb. Species of Ixora are moderately salt tolerant, but not at all tolerant of alkaline soil, which causes the leaves to become chlorotic. Ixora L. In: Proseabase. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. A global assessment of distribution, diversity, endemism, and taxonomic effort in the Rubiaceae. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Lateral roots frequently put out suckers; layering also occurs whenever a branch touches the ground (Francis, 2004). Genus species: Ixora coccinea Family: Rubiaceae Chuukese name: Achiou English name: Burning Love, Jungle Flame or Jungle Geranium Kosrean name: Kalsruh Pohnpeian name: Ketieu Yapese name: Waish Growth form: Shrub Growth location: Terrestrial Growth environment: From … The word “Ixora” is a Portuguese version of Iswari, name of Goddess Parvati to which the flowers of I. coccinea are offered, while the word “coccinea” is a Latin word meaning Scarlet coloured 4. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. Floridata. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. I. coccinea grows well in all textured soils if moisture is adequate and drainage is good. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Francis JK, 2004. In Rajasthan in India, I. coccinea is found in forest areas and road cuttings (DOMAP, 2016); in Florida, this species is observed along roadsides, agricultural fields or thickets (Gann et al., 2019). Ixora colei Gentil. Ixora pallida Reinw. by Quattrocchi, U.]. Settl. Other species like Ixora coccinea, Ixora siamensis (dwarf cultivar), ... Inflorescence and flowers of the red and yellow cultivars of Ixora javanica. Flora of Mozambique. Online Database. Duara P, 2014. (2019) describes the species as non-native in Puerto Rico and cultivated only; however, Liogier (1997) describes it as having naturalized and grown as an ornamental. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. Ixora coccinea NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. An evergreen shrub. Inflorescence . Gynoecium composed of bicarpellary, syncarpous, bilocular, two ovules in each locule, axile placentation, style long and passes through the long corolla tube, stigma bilobed and simple. Plants exposed to more sun will be denser and more compact, and produce more flowers. Fruiting occurs in November and May. (Blütenbiologische Typen als Elemente der Sippengliederung : dargestellt anhand der Flora Südafrikas). Ixora coccinea was introduced in Brazil in 1809 where it has become a popular ornamental (Hottz et al., 2007). If temperatures dip below 4°C, leaves and small twigs will be damaged. Vogel S, 1954. More information about modern web browsers can be found at In Florida, nematodes, root rot, leaf spots, bagworms (Pteroma plagiophleps), aphids and scale insects have been reported on I. coccinea (Gilman, 1999). alliaceae was higher than that of Ixora coccinea [14] and Sida acuta [15]. I. coccinea is a member of the family Rubiaceae. Plant Disease, 94(2), 278. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-94-2-0278C., Hyde M A, Wursten B T, Ballings P, Coates Palgrave M, 2017. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. PIER, 2017. What type of inflorescence is seen in ixora flower? Ixora stricta Roxb. The species name coccinea is a latin derivative which means scarlet coloured. The Ixora coccinea is one of the most popular flowering trees in the tropical and subtropical regions; it has been declared, for instance, national flower of Suriname (Dutch Guyana), where it’s called “fajalobi”, due to its ample presence. ex Sm. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Ixora coccinea * Previous name used in the website: Synonyms: Family name: RUBIACEAE: English name: Jungle gernnium: Local name: Rathmal / Rathambala: Tamil name: Sanskrit name: Conservation status: Description: Small tree, 2-6(-12) m tall. Nutritional composition of some lesser-known fruits used by the ethnic communities and local folks of Kerala. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 9(2), 398-402. Ysrael MC, Van Valkenburg JLCH, 1999. According to Kato et al. New York Botanical Garden, 2017. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. Liogier HA, 1997. (2008) and Duara (2014), the flowers of I. coccinea are exclusively pollinated by papilionid butterflies. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Species epithet 'congesta' means 'crowded' or 'congested', a reference to the dense inflorescence clusters. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Encyclopedia of Life, 2017. Inflorescence terminal, usually a 3-branched cyme, 5-8 cm across. Ixora crocata Lindl. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation. José Chabert-Llompart, El Pastillo Conservation Trust Inc., Puerto Rico. Botanical description of Ixora coccinea . It consists of tropical evergreen trees and shrubs and holds around 562 species. Volume 1, (Gen Tech Rep IITF-GTR-26) [ed. The EPPO Global Database lists the following as pests of I. coccinea: Cephonodes hylas, Ceroplastes stellifer and Maconellicoccus hirsutus (EPPO, 2020). Encyclopedia of Life. Mouly A, Razafimandimbison S, Florence J, Jeremie J, Bremer B, 2009. Ixora coccinea Curtis. Inouye H, Takeda Y, Nishimura H, Kanomi A, Okuda T, Puff C, 1988. Closeup of Ixora coccinea flowers in monochrome. Nora Grant. by Francis JK]. Richmond, London, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. Nazarudeen, A., 2010. It flowers throughout the year in full sunlight and light shade; shrubs grown in heavy shade rarely flower (Whistler, 2000; Useful Tropical Plants, 2017). Dense, multi-branched evergreen shrub, commonly 1.2-2 m in height, but capable of reaching up to 3.6 m. Leaves simple, opposite, ± sessile to short-petiolate; blades elliptic, oblong, or obovate, usually leathery, base cordate to round (rarely wedge-shaped), apex rounded, mucronate, or shortly tapering, up to 10 cm long and 5 cm wide; stipules basally sheathing, lobes triangular and strongly awn-tipped. Online Database. Encyclopedia of Life. Ixora coccinea is a dense, multi-branched evergreen shrub native to India and Sri Lanka. In: Encyclopedia of Life. Leaf . I. coccinea thrives in full sun in moist but well-drained acid soil but can tolerate light to moderate shade (Gilman, 1999). Ixora coccinea red inflorescence. Ixora coccinea is native to the Indian subcontinent including Sri Lanka (USDA-ARS, 2017) and tropical Southeast Asia (Floridata, 2017). Botanical Name : Ixora coccinea L. The species name coccinea is a latin derivative which means scarlet coloured.. Synonyms : Pavetta coccinea (L.) Blume Common Name : Ixora Plant Family : Rubiaceae Plant Form : Shrub Occurrence (Sectors) : 1-30 Occurrence (Special Areas) : Gujarat Forestry Research Foundation, Indroda Park, Infocity, Aranya Van About Ixora coccinea Plant : In: Millennium Seed Bank - Seed List. Beautiful Ixora Coccinea flower images. Inflorescences are long-stalked with clusters of fragrant cup-like white flowers of 1–1.5 cm in diameter. However, the shape of the base of the leaf is constant and can be used to distinguish both species (Dontha et al., 2015). I. coccinea grows well in full sun and light to moderate shade. Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page. 1941. I. coccinea is widely used in Ayurveda (traditional medicine) and traditional medicinal practices in Asia. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 96, 68-78. Useful tropical plants database. Alves and Barreto (2010) observed Pseudocercospora ixoricola to be a pathogen of I. coccinea in South America. Quattrocchi, U., 2012. It is also grown in containers, looking very distinguished as a patio or poolside plant. It is a shrub with many stems, measures up to 3 m tall and smooth. It is found worldwide in tropical and subtropical climates and has naturalized in Puerto Rico, presumably dispersed by birds. Although pantropical, the genus is centred in Asia, with the highest species numbers recorded in Southeast Asia  (De Block, 1998). Ixora coccinea (also known as jungle geranium, flame of the woods or jungle flame or pendkuli) is a species of flowering plant in the family Rubiaceae. In: Tropicos database. Ixora coccinea is native in India, widely cultivated in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand.. Botanical Description. Liogier, H. A., Martorell, L. F., 2000. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden. New York Botanical Garden, 2017., Floridata, 2017. New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden. Alves, J. L., Barreto, R. W., 2010. Not known from the wild; apparently a cultivar that was developed at and distributed from the Singapore Botanic Gardens. The inflorescence has quite a long peduncle, and the small tubular flowers have 4 obovate lobes arranged … Habit . A large number of cruciform florets gathered in the scattering inflorescence bloom in a hemispherical shape. About ten species are already cultivated for their large inflorescences and brightly coloured flowers, including I. coccinea. Whistler WA, 2000., Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2017. Branched tap root system. Seeds 2, globose, 0.3-0.4 cm diam. by De Padua, LS, Bunyapraphatsara, N, Lemmens, RHMJ]. Millennium Seed Bank - Seed List. Stamens attached at corolla throat, anthers 0.3-0.35 cm. Phytochemistry, 27, 2591–2598. Ixora L. In: Proseabase, [ed. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico.382 pp. Flower - Hardy only in zones 10 and 11 where it is used as a hedge, specimen, or container plant. Propagation: Asexual reproduction by leaf cuttings. In: Floridata Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Floridata. In situ experiments with I. coccinea showed floral initiation was promoted between 10 and 20°C and inhibited at 30°C (Chen et al., 2003). Ixora dubia Schult., IPPC, 2020. Database of medicinal and aromatic plants in Rajasthan. Revista Brasileira de Biociências, 5, 642-644. About ten species are already cultivated for their large inflorescences and brightly coloured flowers, including I. coccinea. The leaves are large and wide, glossy and rounded. This species has been introduced and cultivated throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World; it is widely cultivated in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand (Ysrael and Van Valkenburg, 1999);  it has naturalized in Puerto Rico (Liogier, 1997; Francis, 2004). Triangular, persistent; corolla tube usually around 3.8 cm, lobes lanceolate to ovate, acute or sometimes obtuse, less than 2.5 to 3.1 cm long. Red, 4 petals, clustered into corymbiform inflorescences, scentless but source of nectar for insects. Watkins JV, Sheeham TJ, 1975. First Report of Sea Grape Flatid in Barbados. Plant-pollinator interactions in tropical monsoon forests in Southeast Asia. Abstract. Ixora coccinea is dispersed by seed; in Puerto Rico, there are reports of this species being dispersed by birds  (Liogier and Martorell, 2000). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory., Useful Tropical Plants, 2017. I. coccinea has been occasionally persisting around former habitations and waste areas in Florida. There are no pictures available for this datasheet, Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2017),,, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Sources differ as to whether the species is native or introduced, Grand Cayman. Liogier H A, Martorell L F, 2000. There is no evidence to suggest or imply that I. coccinea is an invasive species. Location collected: Awak village Collected by: Suprina Ladore. Ixora is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae.It is the only genus in the tribe Ixoreae. Research has shown that both aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of I. coccinea exhibit potent anti-neutrophil activity(Wickramasinghe et al., 2014).
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